Building: Sand Babel
Completion: Conceptual Design
Design Team: Qiu Song, Kang Pengfei, Bai Ying, Ren Nuoya and Guo Shen
AE Interest: These towers will be manufactured from adjacent sand by a solar-powered 3D printer. The lower root-like structures will stabilize and reinforce the dynamic flowing sands while the upper spiral skeleton would be constructed using continuous transmission of tensional forces and house a water-generating system located in the mushroom-shaped roof exploiting temperature differences to produce condensation.
Building: Torre de Especialidades
Location: Mexico City
Completion: Under Construction
Structural Engineer: Buro Happold
Consultant: Joshua Socolar, Physics Professor, Duke University
Material Testing: Kiwa MPA Bautest GmbH, TU Berlin, Fraunhofer IPA Stuttgart
Architect: Allison Dring & Daniel Schwaag
AE Interest: Spanning almost 2,700 square feet and inspired by quasicrystal grid patterns, this unique facade forms a hive-like, double skinned assembly made of Elegant Embellishments’ prosolve370e modules. Designed to clean the city’s polluted air and act as a natural light filtration system and solar gain blocker, the skin is coated with superfine titanium dioxide which mitigates pollutants when triggered by sunlight.
Building: Ping An Finance Center
Location: Shenzhen, China
Completion: 2015 (expected)
Structural Engineer: Thornton Tomasetti
MEP Engineer: J. Roger Preston Group
Design Architect: Kohn Pederson Fox Associates
Developer: Ping An Life Insurance Company of China
Main Contractor: China Construction Design International
Associate Architect: China Construction Design International
AE Interests: This 2,165 foot skyscraper has been pre-certified as a LEED Gold project. The façade will consist of glass panels affixed to chevron-shaped vertical stone members that extend from the foundation. Perimeter columns are concealed within the stone verticals and will interlock at the corners by diagonal braces. The tower will house 115 stories with 42 million square feet of mixed use office space, hotel suites and restaurants and upon completion will be the second-tallest building in the world and the tallest in China.
Building: The Round Tower
Location: Gloucestershire, England
Structural Engineer: Price & Myers
Main Contractor: GL50 Properties
Concrete Contractor: Stallard Construction
Architect: De Matos Ryan
AE Interests: Having suffered aging, neglect and fire, the original castle tower and subterranean dungeon were salvaged to create a medieval/contemporary hybrid residence. Naturally lit and ventilated by the open-air courtyard, this underground villa features glass-walled rooms, sun terrace, and an outdoor pool. The central interior feature is the round skylight that illuminates the interior while reflecting the circular design of the turret above. The substantial thermal mass of the concrete walls help regulate interior temperatures, proving that preserving the past while fostering innovation is the greatest strength of projects such as this.
Building: China Zun
Location: Beijing, China
Completion: 2016 (expected)
Developer: CITIC Real Estate
Architect: TFP Farrells
AE Interests: This 1,706 foot tall, mixed-use skyscraper will be the tallest building in the city upon its completion and will contain 21.5 million square feet of office space, apartments, six-star hotel suites, retail stores and other state-of-the-art facilities. The subtle vertical curves give this monolithic structure an elegant profile which will maximize floor area at the penthouse levels while providing structural stability at the base.
Building: Federation Tower
Location: Moscow, Russia
Completion: 2013 (expected)
Owner: Mirax Group
Contractor: Turner Construction International
Architects: Peter Schweger & Sergei Tchoban
AE Interests: This 1660 foot, multi-use complex will consist of two towers with a spire between them and house hotel suites, restaurants, cafes and apartments. The concrete being used for this structure is grade B90 which is twice as strong as traditional mix designs and should withstand a direct impact from an aircraft. The central spire will house two high-speed elevators with external glazing as well as an observation deck.
Building: Halley VI Research Station
Location: Brunt Ice Shelf (Lat. 75˚35’S, Long. 26˚39’W)
Project Manager: Karl Tuplin
Contractor: MMS Technologies
Architect: Faber Maunsell & Hugh Broughton Architects
AE Interests: Dedicated to studying the Earth’s atmosphere, the station is elevated on ‘legs’ in order to escape the accumulation of snow. The design was the result of an international design competition launched in June 2004 in collaboration with the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the British Antarctic Survey. The station is comprised of 8 modules that house accommodations, laboratories, offices, generators, an observation platform and other facilities. Given the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperatures commonly below -50˚C, the cladding proved to be one of the most daunting challenges; glass-reinforced plastics (GRP) form the protective skin of the modules.
Building: Vietinbank Towers
Location: Hanoi, Vietnam
Completion: 2015 (expected)
Structural Engineers: Halvorson & Partners
Mechanical Engineers: David Stillman Associates
Local Consultants: Vinaconex R+D
Project Management: Turner International
Architect: Foster & Partners
AE Interests: This 3,229,172 square foot mixed-use development will consist of 68- and 48-story towers to be joined by a seven-level podium. The project incorporates numerous high-impact sustainable design methodologies and technology. A combined heat and power plant will supply domestic hot and heating water supplied by waste heat from the CHP. Similarly, the tower will incorporate groundwater cooling, groundwater and rainwater recycling, desiccant dehumidification and an integrated daylighting system as well as an innovative “green spine” concept uses water features, plantings and recycled dehumidified air to cool and improve the air quality in the atria and podium spaces.
Building: Kingdom Tower
Location: Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Completion: 2016-2017 (expected)
Engineer: Langan International
Architect: Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture
Structural Engineer: Thornton Tomasetti
Main Contractor: Saudi Binladin Group
Developer: Emaar Properties, Jeddah Economic Company (JEC)
AE Interests: Estimated to cost $1.23 billion and reach a staggering 3,280 feet in height, the total construction area will encompass 5.7 million square feet. The building will serve a multi-purpose design consisting of office spaces, apartments, retail stores, luxury condominiums, exterior sky terrace as well as the world’s highest observatory.
Building: Hyatt at Capital Gate
Location: Abu Dhabi
Completion: Under Construction
Architect: ADENC & RMJM Architects
Project Director: Tony Archibold
AE Interests: This 35 story, 200 room, five-star hotel is in the Guinness Book of World Records as the “World’s Most Inclined Tower”, leaning 18º, four times farther than the Leaning Tower of Pisa. The structure is supported by a pre-cambered reinforced concrete core. While the specialized foundation is comprised of nearly five hundred 100-foot piles and a 7-foot deep reinforced concrete base. The facade consists of a diagrid exoskeleton made of interlocking diamond-shaped glass panels.
Building: Aldar HQ
Location: Al Raha Beach, Abu Dhabi
Architect: MZ & Partners
Structural Engineer: ARUP
AE Interests: The first of its kind, this circular 23 story skyscraper was voted as the Best Futuristic Design 2008 by the Building Exchange Conference. Hundreds of pylons and twin concrete support cores are required to counter the substantial wind loads and the aluminum and glass façade is comprised of numerous triangular panes.
Building: Lake Point Tower
Location: 505 North Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois
Architects: John Heinrich & George Schipporeit
AE Interests: This 645 foot, high-rise residential building was the tallest apartment building in the world at the time of its completion. The tower was designed with a 59 foot triangular core, which contains the elevators and stairs and allows the structure to withstand high wind loads. The façade consists of a bronze-tinted glass-curtain wall system framed by gold-anodized aluminum, which reflects the sun.
Building: Habitat 67
Location: 2600, Pierre Dupuy Avenue in Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Architect: Moshe Safdie
AE Interests: Built as part of Expo ’67 it was a thematic pavilion that served as a temporary residence for the many dignitaries who came to Montreal. The concept was to integrate variety and diversity of private homes with the economic benefits and density of a modern apartment building. Constructed from interlocking modular, concrete forms, it was meant to serve the lifestyle of those who would live in crowded cities.
Building: Neues Tempodrom
Location: Berlin, Germany
Architect: Meinhard von Gerkan, Marg & Partners
Structural Engineering: Krupp Stahlbau
Project Manager: Stephan Schütz
Acoustics: BeSB Schalltechnisches Büro
Landscape design: Krafft-Wehberg
AE Interests: This tent-like concrete and wooden structure is supported by 12 structural steel columns and reaches a height of more than 120 feet. The large interior volume has seating for 3,800 and hosts rock concerts and sporting events.
Building: Grand Lisboa
Location: Macao, China
Architect: Dennis Lau & Ng Chun Man
AE Interests: This 856 foot tall skyscraper was designed to reflect the shape of a lotus and has cantilevers over 65 feet on each side supported by a cable stayed structural assembly. The sphere at the base is a thin shell structure braced by a skeletal steel frame enclosed by an aluminum curtain wall.
Building: Pabellon de Aragon
Location: Zaragoza, Spain
Architect: Daniel Olano Aragonese, Olano y Mendo Architects, Inc.
AE Interests: This pavilion, supported by nine monumental vertical cores, is shaped like a wicker basket while the façade is composed of woven layers of opaque glass and micro-concrete.
Building: Museum of Contemporary Art
Location: Niteroi, Brazil
Architect: Oscar Niemeyer
Structural Engineer: Bruno Contarini
AE Interests: This saucer-shaped modernist structure, comprised of structural concrete, is situated on a cliff overlooking the beach. Compared to a flying saucer, it is cantilevered from a 9m thick central core with three circular floor plates.
Building: Jumeirah Emirates Towers Complex
Location: Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Architect: Hazel W.S. Wong Norr Group Consultants Int. Ltd.
AE Interests: These twin towers, a 54 story office building and a 56 story five-star business hotel, are connected by a retail boulevard. This structure reaches 1,020 feet tall at its highest point, making it the 19th-tallest building in the world.
Building: John Curtin School of Medical Research
Location: Canberra, Australia
AE Interests: This biomedical research center has external glazed panels and metal clad fins on the façade. The interior has flexibly designed laboratory areas for collaborative research.
Building: Solar Furnace
Location: Odeillo, France
Designer: Prof. Felix Trombe
AE Interests: This array of curved mirrors is used to harness the sun’s rays to produce high temperatures for industrial uses. The parabolic reflector focuses light at the focal point, which may reach as high as 6,330°F, to generate electricity, melt steel produce hydrogen fuel and nanomaterials.
Building: Ryugyong Hotel
Location: Pyongyang, North Korea
Under Construction: 1987-1992 (on hold since 1992)
Architect: Baikdoosan Architects & Engineers
Contractor: Baikdoosan Architects & Engineers
AE Interests: This 105 story skyscraper is currently being constructed with reinforced concrete and covered in mirrored glass and is the largest structure in the country. The structure consists of three wings, each measuring 330 feet long and sloped at 75° angle which meet to form the pinnacle.
Building: Montreal Biosphère
Location: Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Architect: Richard Buckminster Fuller
AE Interests: This massive, geodesic dome was constructed from a frame of steel pipes with 1,900 acrylic panels. The surface of the 250 foot diameter dome consists of a system of retractable shading screens, angled with respect to the sun, to control the heat.
Building: Chapel of the Holy Cross
Location: 780 Chapel Road, Sedona, Arizona
Architect: Marguerite Bruswig Staude
AE Interests: Situated on a twin-pinnacled spur 250 feet high, the most prominent feature of this modern chapel is the massive cross on its façade, with a window behind it.
Building: The Esplanade
Architect: DP Architects Pte Ltd. & Michael Wilford & Partners
Structural Engineer: Atelier One
AE Interests: This waterside performing arts center houses five auditoriums, several outdoor performance spaces, and a mix of offices, stores, and apartments. The main concert hall has controllable resonance chambers and an adjustable acoustical ceiling. The interior steel structure supports a façade of glazing with 6,200 aluminum panels which are angled according to the position of the sun.
Building: Arche de la Défense
Location: La Défense, France
Architects: Johann Otto von Spreckelsen & Paul Andreu
Engineer: Erik Reitzel
AE Interests: Created to be a monument to humanity, the structure is almost a perfect cube, resembling a tesseract in 3D. The Arche is composed of a prestressed concrete frame with a façade of glass and Carrara marble. The sides house government offices and the roof has an exhibition center within.
Building: Sculptured House
Location: Genesee Mountain, Jefferson County, Colorado
Architect: Charles Utter Deaton
AE Interests: This elliptical curved house is an example of organic architecture and sculptural art. The structure is meant to reflect the simplicity of nature in its form and the complexity of nature in its construction.
Building: Stata Center
Location: 32 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA
Architect: Gehry Partners, LLP
Associate Architect: Cannon Design
MEP Engineers: R.G. Vanderweil Engineers, Inc
Structural Engineers: John A. Martin & Associates, Inc.
Construction Manger: Skanska USA Building, Inc
AE Interests: This 720,000 square foot academic complex on the MIT campus contains the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems, as well as the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy. Above the fourth floor, the building is divided into two separate structures, the Gates tower, “G Tower”, and the Dreyfoos tower, “D Tower”.
Building: Puerta de Europa Towers
Location: Madrid, Spain
Architects: Philip Johnson, John Burgee
Structural Engineer: Leslie E. Robertson Associates
Developer: Kuwait Investment Office
AE Interests: These post-modern, twin office buildings consist of 26 stories and have a 15° inclination, making them the first ever sloping skyscrapers. The structure has vertical, horizontal and diagonal structural steel members that surround a vertical reinforced core. The façade is composed of metal filled tinted glass panels that have a red grid-like imprint.
Building: The Chrysler Building
Location: 405 Lexington Avenue, Manhattan, NY, United States
Architect: William Van Alen
AE Interests: This iconic, Art Deco office building was the first to exceed 1,000 feet and was constructed with nearly 400,000 rivets and 3,826,000 manually laid bricks. Reaching 1,046 feet, this structure remains the world’s tallest steel-supported brick building and is capped with a stainless steel ornamented top.
Building: Suite Vollard
Location: Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil
Architect: Bruno de Franco
AE Interests: Constructed mainly from concrete, this is the world’s first fully rotating structure, turning 360 degrees every hour. Each floor has double sheets of tinted glass on the façade and is independent of the other 10 levels.
Building: Cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption
Location: 1111 Gough Street, San Francisco, California
Designers: Pier Luigi Nervi and Pietro Belluschi
Architects: John Michael Lee, Paul A. Ryan and Angus McSweeney
Structural Engineer: L.F. Robinson
AE Interests: This modern, structural expressionist structure, composed entirely of reinforced concrete, has been named one of San Francisco’s top 25 buildings. The saddle roof, often said to resemble a washing machine agitator, is composed of segments of hyperbolic paraboliods. Along each of the four edges, stained-glass windows extend from floor to ceiling and allow for interior illumination.
Building: Notre Dame du Haut
Location: Ronchamp, Haute-Saône, France
Architect: Le Corbusier
AE Interests: Primarily comprised of concrete and stone, this pilgrimage chapel is illuminated by soft, indirect light from deep inset stained-glass windows, some as thick as 7 feet. The most striking feature, the billowing roof, slopes toward the rear where rain run-ff pours into an abstract fountain.
Building: Frost Bank Tower
Location: Austin, Texas
Architect: Duda/Paine Architects, LLP and HKS, Inc
AE Interests: This 33 story, Class A office building used a cast-in-place concrete frame, 7,000 tons of reinforcing steel and a limestone and glass curtain wall. The façade features a stair-step exterior terminating in a steel and glass ‘crown’ illuminated by 220 high-intensity lights. The street level features a landscaped urban plaza with restaurants and conference facilities. The lobby floor is unique pattern of various types of stone, and houses a glass granite water feature, with limestone and wood adding architectural finishes.
Building: LEGO House
Location: Surrey, England
Designer: James May
AE Interests: Demolished soon after its completion, this fully functioning, two story house consisted of appropriately 3.3 million LEGO bricks. The structure had a full staircase and even a working shower and toilet, all made from LEGO bricks.
Building: Lippo Centre
Location: 89 Queensway, Admiralty, Hong Kong
Architect: Paul Rudolph
Developer: Alan Bond
AE Interests: This pair of twin office buildings was designed to relieve the severity of skyscraper walls by using clusters of obtruding windows. The structures are said to look like koalas climbing a tree and therefore know as ‘the Koala Tree’ among the locals.
Building: Burj al-Taqa
Completion: Proposed Design
Architect: Gerber Architekten international GmbH
AE Interests: Designed to generate all its own energy, the name means ‘Energy Tower’ and will have a massive 197 foot diameter wind tower on the roof along with numerous solar cells arrays totaling 131,459 square feet. Louvered openings in the façade will allow cool air into the building which will sink and dissipates throughout the interior.
Building: Macquarie Bank
Location: 1 Shelley Street, Sydney
Architect: Fitzpatrick & Partners
Structural Engineers: Arup
Prime Frame Contractor: BlueScope
Subcontract Fabricators: S & L Steel
Stair structures: Allmen Engineering
AE Interests: The façade of this building features a unique ‘diagrid’ support structure, the only one of its kind in Sydney. The structure contains many innovative, environmentally sustainable technologies such as passive chilled beams and harbor water for heat rejection giving the building a 6 Star Green Star rating.
Building: Umeda Sky Building
Location: Umeda district of Kita-ku, Japan
Architect: Hiroshi Hara
AE Interests: This 40-story structure is the seventh-tallest building in Osaka City and has two towers connected at the top by bridges and escalators allowing access to ‘The Floating Garden Observatory’. The roof features a circular opening that provides an unobstructed 360-degree view.
Building: Bahá’í House of Worship
Location: New Delhi, Delhi, India
Architect: Fariborz Sahba
Structural Engineer: Flint & Neill
AE Interests: This expressionist structure is based on a flower-like design consisting of a concrete frame and precast concrete ribbed roof. The nine-sided façade is composed of twenty-seven free-standing, white marble clad forms which resemble lotus petals. Since its completion, it has won numerous awards and has attracted more than 50 million visitors.
Building: Darcons Headquarters Building
Location: Delicias City, Chihuahua, Mexico
Architects: Jorge Cajiga, Raúl Rodríguez, Roberto Villarreal, Reyes Baeza
Structural Design: Estructuristas y Consultores
Project Management: Urbanismo y Edificación Mexicana
Structural Engineering: EASA Construcciones
AE Interests: This office structure consists of three orthogonal, stacked volumes with glazing on the opposite sides and shaded by opaque, concrete walls on the western façade. The multifunctional skin of the building is transparent, allowing for views to the exterior and also defines the shape of the frame.
Building: Scottish Parliament Building
Location: Edinburgh, Scotland
Architect: Enric Miralles
Structural Engineer: ARUP
Main Contractor: Bovis Lend Lease
AE Interests: This multipurpose complex houses committee rooms, debating chambers and administration offices. The unique design is meant to reflect the Scottish landscape, its people and its culture; especially the bay windows which are made of stainless steel and framed in oak, with oak lattices covering the glass. The structure has won many awards including the 2005 Stirling Prize.
Building: Gas Natural Headquarters
Location: Barcelona, Spain
Architect: Enric Miralles / Benedetta Tagliabue EMBT
Project Director: Josep Ustrell
Structural: Julio Martinez Calzón
AE Interests: The primary goal of this design was to combine several objectives: create an urban landmark, to reconcile with the surrounding low-rise houses and create quality public spaces. The glass façade of this structure, meant to reflect a bite from a shark, is made of 100 trapezoidal panels of stratified glass with high rigidity for safety.
Building: The National Library
Location: Minsk, Belarus
Architect: M.K. Vinogrdov and V.V. Kramarenko
AE Interests: The library is 22 stories and its main architectural component is that is has the shape of a rhombicuboctahedron. Situated on a river bank, it has an observation deck that overlooks Minsk while the front area is commonly used for public concerts and shows.
Building: Olympic Stadium
Location: 4141 avenue Pierre-De Coubertin, Montreal, QC H1V 3N7, Canada
Architect: Roger Taillibert
AE Interests: This very elaborate structure, features a retractable roof which utilizes a 574 foot tower, the tallest inclined structure in the world. Often referred to as a Organic Modern architecture, the design was based on plant and animal forms, while including vertebral structures with tentacles.
Building: UCSD Geisel Library
Location: San Diego, California
Architect: William L. Pereira
AE Interests: Originally designed as a sphere, the structural elements required too much internal space, and were relocated to the exterior, resulting in the present “lantern-like” façade. This structure is a great example of brutalist architecture with the lower section creating a pedestal for the upper levels of the tower.
Building: Aqua Tower
Location: 200 block of North Columbus Drive, Chicago, Illinois
Completion: Spring 2010 (expected)
Architect of Record: Loewenberg & Associates
Designer: Jeanne Gang, Studio Gang Architects
AE Interests: This 82-story mixed residential/office skyscraper has cantilevered balconies out as far as 12 feet in some places; these terrace extensions maximize solar shading. The irregularly-shaped concrete slabs give an undulating characteristic to the façade.
Building: Church of Hallgrímur
Location: Reykjavík, Iceland
Architect: Guðjón Samuelssondesign
AE Interests: This is the largest church in Iceland and was designed to resemble the basalt flows in the Icelandic topography. The interior has seating for 1,200 people and houses a large mechanical-action pipe organ, which is 50 feet tall and weighs 25 tons.
Building: Singapore Residential Tower
Location: At the intersection of Scotts Road and Cairnhill Road, Singapore
Completion: Proposed Design
Architect: Eric Chang
Designer: Ole Scheeren
Contractor: Office for Metropolitan Architecture
AE Interests: Composed of four towers, vertically offset from each other and suspended from a central core, it is proposed to house 68 luxury apartments with panoramic views. The elevated tower design will reduce the overall footprint of the building.